The Term Terrestrial Term is Defined an Interrelation between the Organisms and Environment Land.


A tundra is a baric Land Since there are two types of tundra:


Arctic Tundra Extends as a Continuous Belt between the Polar ice cap and Above the tree Lines in the Northern Hemisphere. Alpine Tundra Occurs a high Mountains Above the tree Lines

Flora and Fauna:

A Vegetation of Arctic Tundra is Cotton Grass, Sedges, Dwarf Health willows, Birches and Lichens. Animals of Tundra Are Reindeer, Musk Ox, Artic here, Caribous and Squirrel.


Forest Ecosystem:

The Forrest Ecosystem is a Complex Assemblage of Different kinds of the Biotic Communities. The Nature of Soil, Climate and Local Topography determine the Distribution of trees and their Abundance in the Forest vegetation.

The forest Ecosystem is Classified into three Major Categories:

  1. Coniferous Forest
  2. Temperature Forest
  3. Topical Forest

Coniferous Forest:

  • Coniferous Forest has a High Rainfall with Long Winters and Short Summers.
  • The Evergreen Plants Species Such as Spruce, fir and Pine Trees, etc.
  • Boreal Forest Soils Are Thin Podozols and Rather Proof.
  • These Soils Are Acidic and Mineral Deficit due to Large Movement of Soil in the Rocks.
  • The Productivity and Community Stability of a Boreal Forest and Lower than those of Any other forest Ecosystem.

Temperature Deciduous Forest:

  • The Temperature of this Forest is Moderate Climate and Broad Leafed Deciduous.
  • The Precipitation is Fairly Uniform Throughout
  • Soils of the Temperature forest are Podozolic and Fairly Deep.

Temperature Evergreen Forest:

  • This Forest has a Mediterranean types of Climate of Characterised by Warm, Dry Summers and Cool, Moist Winters.
  • They are Commonly inhabited by low Broad Leafed Evergreen trees.
  • Fire is the Important Factor of this ecosystem and the adaptation of the Plants enable them to regenerate quickly after being hunt.

Temperature Rain Forest:

  • This Forest is the Exhibit a Marked Seasonality with Regard to Temperature and Rainfall
  • Rainfall is High and Fog is May be Very heavy.
  • The Biotic Diversity of Temperature of Rain forest is high as Compared to the other forest.

Tropical Rain Forest:

  • Tropical Rain Forest Occurs Near to the Equator.
  • Both temperature and Humidity remains high Less and Uniform
  • The Flora is Highly Diversified.
  • Soil of Red Tropical Rainforest Are Red Latosols, and they are Very Thick.
  • Undergrowth is Restricted in many areas by the Lack of Sunlight at a Ground Level

Tropical Rainforest:

  • It is also Known as Monsoon Forest where the Total Annual Rainfall is High.
  • This Kind of Forest found in the South east Asia and South America.

Subtropical Rainforest:

  • This Region has a fairly high rainfall and Less Temperature.
  • Epiphytes are Common here.
  • Animal Life of Subtropical Forest is very Similar to that of Tropical Forest.

      Indian Forest system:

India has a Diverse of Forest from the Rainforest of Kerala in the South to the Alpine Dessert of the Rajasthan.

Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest:

Wet Evergreen Forest found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar and Along all the North Eastern Region. It’s a Straight Line Forest.

Tropical Semi Evergreen Forest:

Semi Evergreen Forest are Found in the Western Ghats and Nicobar Island and the Eastern Himalayas. These are Dense Forest and the and Is Filed in the Large Variety of trees of both types.

Tropical Most Deciduous Forest:

Topical Most Deciduous forest are Found in the throughout India Except and western and the Northern Western Regions.

Littoral and Swamp:

Littoral and Swamp Are Found Along the Andaman and Nicobar Island and the Delta area of Ganga and The Brahmaputra.

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest:

Dry Deciduous forest and Found Throughout the Northern Part of the Country Except and in the Northern East It is Also Found in the MP and Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Tropical thorn Forest:

This type of the Forest in areas with the black and Soil:  North, West and Central and South India. The Trees do now grow 10 Meters.

Tropical Evergreen Forest:

Dry Evergreens Are Found Along Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Coast. It is Mainly Hard Leaved Evergreen Trees with Fragrant Flowers, Along with a Few Deciduous Trees.

Himalayan Moist Temperature Forest:

The trees Found in the Western Section Are Broad and Leaved Oak, Brown and Walnut etc.

Himalayan Dry Temperature Forest:

This Type is Found in Lahul, Kinnaur, Sikkim and Other Parts of the Himalayas. At the Higher Level of the Elevation, fir, Juniper, Deodar and Chilgoza are Found.




  1. Shifting Cultivation:

In this Practice a Patch of Land is Cleared vegetation is Burned and the Ash is Mixed with the Soil and Adding Nutrients to the Soil. The Patch of Land is Cleared for Using the Crops and two or three years is Modest. All that is Required is the Method of the Cultivation is a Set of the Simple tools and not required a High Level Mechanism.

  1. Development Project:

The Human Population is Increased So with Requirements. Many of the Project

Immerse Deforestation.

  1. Fuel Requirements:

The Increasing Demands of the Firewood with the Growing Population increases with the Greater Pressure on the Forests.

  1. Raw Materials:

Wood is used for the Various Industries for Making the Paper, Plywood and the Match Sticks.

  1. Other Causes:

Deforestation also Causes the Overgrazing and Agriculture, mining and Urbanization, Pest Disease, Communication Activities.


Grassland Ecosystem

The Grassland is Found where the Rainfall is About the 25-75 CM Per Year and not Enough to Support a Forest but More than that of a True Dessert. In the Central and Eastern Parts and Central Parts of the Rajasthan where the Rainfall is About 500 CM Per year and the Dry Season of the Six to Eight Months, Dry Savana Grazing Ecosystem and Grazing Ecosystem is Developed.

Types of Grasslands:

  1. Semi – Arid Zone:

It Covers Northern Parts of the Gujarat and Rajasthan and UP and Delhi and Punjab. The Topography is Broken up by the hill Spurns and Sand Dunes. Nummularia Which looks the Shrubs.

  1. Dry Sub Mid Forest:

It Covers Whole Peninsular India (Except Nilgiri). Sehima is Most Prelevant and on Gravel and Cover may be 27% of the 80 % is Cover by the Ground.

  1. Moist Sub Humid Zone:

The Topography Level is Low Lying and ill Drained. The Common trees and Shrubs Are Acacia Arabia. Some of these are Replaced by Borassus in the Palm Savannas Especially Near Sundarbans.

  1. The Themeda:

This Extends Are Moist to the Humid Areas of the Assam, Manipur, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab and Manipur and Jammu Kashmir.

Role of Fire:

Fire Plays an Important Role in the Management of the Grasslands. Under Moist Conditions, fire Favours grass over trees Where is Necessary for the Maintain for the Invasion of the Deserts Shrubs. Burning increases, the Forage Yields Cynodon Daotylon.

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