The concept of ‘Syllogism’ was introduced by Aristotle, it means ‘inference’ or ‘deduction’. Syllogism is important part of almost every competitive exam with Logical Reasoning. These questions are generally easy to solve if correct train of thought is maintained while approaching the question. Since the questions related to syllogism form a promising part of the competitive exams like various bank exams like IBPS, RBI, SBI associate Clerk, RRB as well ass in UPSC CSAT, SSC and others. If candidates go through the following explanation regarding syllogism with little practice and concentration.
First let us look at some basic terms used in the rules of syllogism and try to understand them.Generally, there are two parts in syllogisms – Premises / propositions and Conclusions/inference.
A premise or proposition is a sentence which makes a statement and hence, gives a relation between two or more terms. In logical deductions, any statement is termed as proposition or premise. For example;
- All windows are rods
- No cloth is a bay
- Some students are members
- Some green are not white
There are the following parts of proposition or premise as explained below:
- Subject : A subject is that part of proposition about which something is being said.
- Predicate : A predicate is the part of premise denoting that which is affirmed or denied about the subject.
Premises usually start with the words- All, No, Some and Some–not.
- The word ‘all’, has its synonyms which give the same meaning – Every, Any, Each.
- The word ‘Some’ is also replaced by – Many, Few, Most of , More, A little, etc.
Propositions/ Premise in syllogism
Premises are divided into Universal and Particular statements, they are also divided into positive and negative statements. The following are basic types of premise:
i) Universal positive proposition: A premise of