[And, but, for, nor, or, but, otherwise, else, also, either -or, neither -nor, etc. are the chief co-ordinate conjunctions. For instance;
She went to the hospital and met the doctor.
Drake and Dragon are best friends.
The Co-ordinate Conjunctions are of four kinds:
1. Cumulative Conjunctions: A conjunction which adds one statement or fact to another is a cumulative conjunctions. For instance;
The professor as well as the lecturer has accepted to conduct the examination next week.
The following are the cumulative conjunctions:
- Not only —but also,
- Both — and,
- As well as
- too, also, moreover, etc.
2. Alternative Conjunctions: A conjunctions of this kind expresses a choice between two alternatives. Either–or, neither–nor, otherwise, else, etc. are alternative conjunctions. For instance;
- He is good neither at games nor at studies.
- Work hard, otherwise you will fail.
3. Adversative Conjunctions: An adversative conjunction expresses a contrast between two facts or statements. Only, however, but, still, yet, whereas, nevertheless, etc. are adversative conjunctions. For instance;
- He was angry, but she kept quiet.
- He hates me, yet I love her.
4. Illative Conjunctions: Such a conjunction shows that a statement or fact is proved or inferred from another. Therefore, hence, so, consequently, for, etc. are Illative conjunctions. For instance;
- She is honest and amiable, hence he is revered.
5. Subordinate Conjunctions: These are the conjunctions that connect a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning.
The adverbial clauses are usually connected to the main clauses by means of the subordinate conjunctions: The Chief Subordinating Conjunctions are after, because, if, another, through, till, etc. The following are some of the sentences in which important subordinate conjunctions are used.
- She had died before the doctor arrived.
- We eat so that we may live.
- She behaved in such a manner that all dislike her.
The following compound expressions also can be used as conjunctions. For instance; In order that, on condition that, even if, so that, provided that, as though, as well as, as if, etc.
P.S. : There are some words which are used both as conjunctions and as prepositions.
- Conjunctions – [We went home after she came to the office.]
- Prepositions – [We went home after sunrise.]
- Conjunctions – [I went to bed early, for I was tired.]
- Prepositions – [I shall do it for him.]
The following conjunctions are used in pairs and hence are called correlative conjunctions.
- Not only—but also
When conjunctions are used as correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words ti be connected.
- She not only visited Delhi but also Jaipur. [Is WRONG]
- She visited not only Delhi but also Jaipur. [Is CORRECT]
- She is neither good at Mathematics nor at Science. [Is WRONG]
- She is good at neither Mathematics nor Science. [Is CORRECT]
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